Chatto & Windus (hardback) London 2011
Harvard University Press (hardback) USA 2012

Please click the thumbnails below for a full contents list.



Please click here for all Stranger Magic reviews.

All current events can be found on the Diary page here. All archived events can be found here.

October 2013
MW has contributed 'The reality bodily before us': picturing the Arabian Nights ' to Fictions of Art History (Clark Studies in the Visual Arts) by Mark Ledbury and Michael Hatt, published by Yale University Press (2013).

24th October 2013
' Newsmaker: Djinn' by Anna Zacharias featuring an interview with MW published in The National can be read here.

30th September 2013 5-7pm
Voices without Borders
Travelling Tales and Literary Heritage
Held at Room 349, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU

Several of Boccaccio's stories include special motifs and plots with links to the Arabian Nights. Above all, the general character of his storytelling reveals lively interactions across linguistic and political borders. Can literature offer a contrasting perspective on the conflicts of the past? Where are the borders in the sea of stories? Marina Warner will look at ways in which customary oppositions and divisions are treated in the wonder tale or marvellous fictions of the Mediterranean.
Organised by the Institute of Modern Languages Research, University of London School of Advanced Study, in conjunction with the conference 'Boccaccio and Company: An Introduction to the Decameron' at the British Library (further details here.) For more details click here.

August 2013
MW has contributed an essay for Lotte Reiniger's film The Adventures of Prince Achmed, re-released on DVD and Blue Ray special edition by BFI London. All details can be found here.

Autumn/Winter 2013
'Scheherazade's Children: Global Encounters with the Arabian Nights' Edited By Philip Kennedy and Marina Warner, NYU Press, Nov 2013,
details here.

July 2013
MW interviewed about Stranger Magic in Bint Al Khaleej - UAE - Arabic Magazine,Issue 87. The article can be viewed as a pdf here.


13th December 2012
Networks of Circulation, conference at SOAS. Details to follow.

23rd -26th November 2012
Lausanne – details to follow

21st November 2012, 10.30am
'The shade and the screen:  Lotte Reiniger's shadowplay' Opening talk in the conference,  The Shadow of Language, Royal College of Art

13th November 2012
'Travelling Texts, Eastern Approaches : Italian Fabulism and the 1001 Nights' Leconfield Lecture, Italian Institute London. Details here.

27th October 2012, 7-9pm
"Stranger Magic," a discussion between Marina Warner and George Prochnik on October 27th at Cabinet,, 300 Nevins Street, Brooklyn New York. More details here.


26th October 2012, 4.00pm
'Enchanting Reason' with Harold Bloom, NYU Abu Dhabi, New York

3rd October 2012, 6.00 pm
Circolo dei Lettori, Torino/Turin

30th September 2012, 1.30pm
Marina Warner: Stranger Magic: Charmed States and The Arabian Nights, County Buildings, Main Hall, Wigtown Book Festival 2012

The Middle Eastern folk stories of The Arabian Nights arrived in Europe in translation 300 years ago, and proceeded to fire the imaginations of artists from Mozart and Coleridge, to Italo Calvino and Angela Carter. Using familiar and lesser known tales, Marina Warner discusses why The Arabian Nights and its brand of magical thinking have been so influential. In conversation with Tahir Shah, author of In Arabian Nights. More information can be found here.

26th August 2012
Edinburgh International Festival 2012 - Encounters: Magic & Enchantment.

Writer Marina Warner, Wagner specialist Derek Watson and Dmitry Krymov, director of A Midsummer Night’s Dream (As You Like It), examine the roles of myth, fairytale and enchantment in culture and creativity. Chaired by the Head of Literature for the British Council, Susie Nicklin.
Details here.

25th August 2012, 5pm
'How Magic Helped Create The Modern World'
The Folio Society event, Edinburgh Book Festival

We live in a secular age, in which we have elevated humanism and scientific rationalism above all other approaches. Marina Warner challenges this with her erudite and deeply engaging book Stranger Magic. She argues that magic is a necessary part of our lives and demonstrates this via a journey taking in Greek gods, Gilgamesh and Prospero and the Arabian Nights. Magic, argues Warner, is a way of dreaming the impossible. Details here.

23rd July 2012, 8:40pm BBC Radio 3
MW interviewed for 'Episode 2 of 2, Goethe and the West-Eastern Divan' on BBC Radio 3 Tweny Minutes.
To complement the series of Beethoven concerts by the West-Eastern Divan orchestra, Paul Farley explores Goethe's poetic sequence, 'The West-Eastern Divan', from which Daniel Barenboim's orchestra takes its name. Paul examines Goethe's engagement with the ideas and imagery of Persian literature, and talks to contemporary German poets and writers about the continuing legacy of his 'West-Eastern Divan' poetry cycle. The programme can be heard here.

4th July 2012, 10.20pm ABC National Radio Australia
'How the magic of the Arabian Nights changed the west'
Mythology and magic expert Marina Warner discusses The Arabian Nights and the profound impact they had on Western literature, thinking and progress. The programme can be downloaded here.

March 2012
'Stranger Magic: Charmed States and The Arabian Nights' published in the US by Harvard University Press. A PDF of the press release can be downloaded here and more information can be found here.

Marina Warner to give lecture ‘The Tales Things Tell: Charmed Goods in the world of the Arabian Nights’ at The University of Warwick as part of the Distinguished Lectures 2012 series. More details here.

17th February 2011, 4:30pm
‘Dark Arts: Magicians in the Arabian Nights’ Departmental Seminar, Literature, Film, and Theatre Studies. University of Essex, details can be found here.

27th February 2011, 11:15am
MW gives the Bath Festival Opening Lecture: ‘The Flying Carpet’. MW contributed Voegelethe article ‘The Biography of the Banana’ for the Art Bulletin No. 90/2011. Details can be found here.

29th March 2011
MW gives the talk 'Scheherazade's voice: Migrations and Meaning in Oriental Fabulism' at Auditorium Del Centro Linguistico, Universita Degli Studi Di Enna "Kore", Italy. More information can be found here.

6th-8th May
MW is giving a talk: “Word Magic: Scheherazade's Way”, inspired by The 1001 Nights: A Study of Enchantment at Poetry Next the Sea festival, Fakenham, Norfolk. Details can be found here.

27th April 2011
MW contributed to the BBC Four documentary ‘Secrets of the Arabian Nights’. Richard E Grant traces the roots of The Arabian Nights. A link to the programme page with clips of MW discussing the Arabian Nights can be found here.

9th October, 2pm 2011
‘The Voice of The Storyteller: Passion, Laughter, and Song in the Arabian Nights’ King’s Place, Hall Two, London.
Scheherazade is the principal storyteller, and she is telling stories to save her life and the life of all women. Inside her stories, many voices take up the thread of the book and begin to tell their own, and within this polyphony, there are outbursts of poetry - passionate erotic lyric, political squibs, and bawdy banter, quoted by the narrators often at moments of the greatest intensity in the plot. This varied and exhilarating chorus of voices has inspired many composers to interpret oriental fairytale. Full details can be found here.

12th October, 4pm, 2011
‘L210 The Cheltenham Lecture: Marina Warner: The Arabian Nights’. Magic is a way of dreaming the impossible; a state of thinking supremely demonstrated by The Arabian Nights, with their flying carpets, hidden treasures and sudden revelations. Held at Montpellier Gardens as part of The Times Cheltenham Literature Festival 2011. More details here.

20th October, 5:15pm,
Marina Warner gives the Postgraduate Research Seminar ‘Inscribing power: Word magic, talismans, and the modern credit’ at The School of English and Drama at Queen Mary, University of London. Full details here and a link to the event programme can be found here.

22nd October, 5-7pm,
‘Enchantments in the Arabian Nights, or, The Life of the Jinn’ Part of the University of Cambridge’s Festival of Ideas 2011.
Jinn - or genies - are the agents of the drama in the stories of the Arabian Nights. They are angelic - and demonic. Made of fire and wind, they fly unaided and wingless through time and space. They are everywhere, invisible and visible, can tower to the skies or shrink into a bottle, marry humans and have children with them, wreak vengeance, turn into animals, and conjure vast fortunes into existence. Their presence charms ordinary things. Solomon commands thousands of those who have repented, but others remain obdurate in their rebellion.
Why did stories featuring such capricious powers from the medieval Arabic literature of aja’ib (astonishing things) attract readers and audiences in the eighteenth century, the era of Enlightenment, when the Arabian Nights first appeared in print in translation? Held at CRASSH, 17 Mill Lane, Cambridge. For booking information please see here.

2nd November 2011
MW contributed 'Inside the secret library where East meets West' an essay review of Alastair Hamilton's
'Western appreciation of Arab and Islamic civilization' published by Oxford University Press, in The Times Literary Supplement published 2nd November 2011. The article can be read here.

3rd November 2011, 10am
MW is interviewed on BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour about her recent book ‘Stranger Magic, Charmed States and the Arabian Nights'. 'Women and the Arabian Nights' - The stories in the Arabian Nights feature a world of magic, genies, flying carpets, hidden treasures, evil spirits and iconic heroes.
Translated into French and English in the early days of the Enlightenment, this Arabic collection of folk and fairy tales became a hugely popular especially tales such as Ali Baba and the forty thieves’ and ‘Aladdin’. At the heart is the heroic figure of Shahrazad, the teller of the tales. However, many of the women in the Arabian Nights are often seen as conniving, adulterous and even cruel. To discuss this Jenni is joined by Marina Warner, author of a new book ‘Stranger Magic, Charmed States and the Arabian Nights'. Programme details can be found here.

4th November 2011
MW contributes
'Oriental Irresistible' an essay review of 'Western appreciation of Arab and Islamic civilization' by Alastair Hamilton
Oxford University Press, for The Times Literary Supplement, TLS November 4, 2011, pp 9-10. The article can be found here.

7th November 2011, 2.30pm
Marina Warner in conversation with Daisy Goodwin at The Bridport Literary Festival, Dorset. More details here.

22nd November 22nd 2011, 7pm
Marina Warner talks about her new book, Stranger Magic: Charmed States and the Arabian Nights at GV Art, 49 Chiltern Street London W1U 6LY. Details can be found here. Map and contact details are here.

24th November 2011, 7pm
Marina Warner gives talk at The Swedenborg Society, Bloomsbury, London. Full details are here.

26th November 2011
Marina Warner gives a talk at Richmond Literature Festival 2011. More details here. A full pdf of the festival programme can be downloaded here.

7th December 2011, 7-9pm
Sheherezade: Fresh Vantages on the 1001 Nights and the Enchantments of Narrative, An evening with Andrei Codrescu, Marina Warner, and Lawrence Weschler. New York Institute for the Humanities at New York University. Marina Warner and Andrei Codrescu in conversation.Held at Cantor Film Center 36 East 8th Street, NYC. A press release and other details can be found here.


24 September 2010
'The Magic Carpet Flight Manual', radio documentary for BBC World Service.
Cathy FitzGerald explores the past, present, and very real future of the magic carpet and wonders what our desire to defy gravity tells us about ourselves. Cultural historian Marina Warner explains the origins of the symbol in the Arabian Nights, and wonders whether we had to invent flying carpets in order to learn how to fly.
We dream of flying and often long to fly unaided - is that part of it? Details and programme can be heard here.




Stories from the Arabian Nights - Alternative titles and sources for characters
and their stories in addition to those retold in Stranger Magic.

For abbreviations scroll down to end.
(Work in Progress compiled with the help of Jasmine Richards – to be continued) November 2011

Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp
pp. 16, 114, 127, 132, 240, 360, 360—2

'The Story of Aladdin, or The Magic Lamp', Vol. 3 (Lyons)
'Histoire d’Aladin, ou la lampe merveilleuse', Vol. 3: 813-920 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The Story of ‘Ala al-Din and the Magic Lamp', (Mahdi/Haddawy II)
'The Tale of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp', Vol. 5 (Mathers/Mardrus)
'Aladdin, or The Wonderful Lamp', Vol. S4 (Burton)
'Histoire d'Aladdin ou la Lampe merveilleuse', Vol. 3: 7-118 (Galland/Sermain)
'The Story of Aladdin: Or, The Wonderful Lamp', 651-725 (ANE)

pp. 99-100, 335-6

'Alexander the Great and the Poor King', Vol. 2 (Lyons)
'Conte d'Alexandre et du roi pauvre', Vol. 2: 331-332 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'Iskandar Zu Al-Karnayn and a Certain Tribe of Poor Folk', Vol. 5(Burton)

Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves
pp. 16, 17, 128, 360

'The story of Ali Baba and the forty thieves killed by a slave girl', Vol. 1:32 (Lyons)
'Histoire D'Ali Baba, et de quarante Voleurs exterminés par une Esclave', Vol. 3: 921-955 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The Story of ‘Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves' ( Mahdi/Haddawy II)
'The Tale of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,' Vol. 5 (Mathers/Mardrus)
'Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves', Vol. S3 (Burton)
'The Story of Ali Baba, and the Forty Thieves destroyed by a Slave', 764-786 (ANE)
'Histoire d'Ali-Baba et de quarante voleurs exterminés par une esclave' Vol. 3: 181-216 (Galland/Sermain)

'The Tale of Ali Shar and Zumurrud'
pp 94, 221, 437

'Ali Shar and Zumurrud,' Vol. 2 (Lyons)
'Conte de 'Ali shar et de sa servante Zumurrud, ' Vol.1:1125-1163 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The Tale of Zumurrud, the Beautiful, and Ali Shar, Son of Glory,' Vol. 2 (Mathers/Mardrus)
'Ali Shar and Zumurrud, ' Vol. 4: 308- 327 (Burton)
'Story of Ali Shir and Zumroud,' Vol. 2 (Lane)

pp 139, 300
'The Story of the Doorkeeper', Vol. 1(Lyons)
'Histoire de la portière', Vol 1:138-149 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The Tale of the Second Lady, the Flogged One' (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
'The Tale of the Portress, Amina', Vol. 1( Mathers/Mardrus)
'The Tale of the Portress', Vol. 1(Burton)
'The Second of the Three Ladies of Baghdad', Vol. 1 (Lane, 1850)
'Histoire d'Amine' Vol.1:217-224 (Galland/Sermain)
'The Story of Amine' 133-139 (ANE)

Buluqiya and Hasib included in The Queen of the Serpents  
pp 68, 77, 149

‘Hasib Karim al-Din and the Snake Queen,’ Vol. 2 (Lyons)
‘The Tale of Yamlik, Queen of the Under Earth,’ Vol.3:251-292 (Mathers / Mardrus)
‘The Queen of Serpents, Vol.5 (Burton)
'The story of Buluqiya', Vol. 2 (Lyons)
'The story of Buluqiya', Vol. 3 (Mathers / Mardrus)
'The Adventures of Bulukiya', Vol. 5 (Burton)
Includes: 'Janshah and Shamshah'
pp 127, 149-50

‘The story of Janshah’, Vol. 2 (Lyons)
‘The Tale of the Fair Sad Youth, Vol. 3’ (Mathers/Mardrus)
‘The Story of Janshah,’ Vol. 5 (Burton)

Coggia Hassan

'History of Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal', Vol. S 3(Burton)
'The Story of Cogia Hassan Alhabbal' (ANE)
‘Histoire de Cogia Hassan Alhababbal’ Vol. 2 (Galland/Sermain)

'The Tale of the First Old Man'
p. 279
'The Story of the First Old Man', Vol 1 (Lyons)
'Histoire du premier vieillard', Vol 1:20-23(Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The First Old Man’s Tale' (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
'The Tale of the First Sheikh', Vol. 1 (Mathers/Mardrus)
'The First Shaykh's Story', Vol.1 (Burton)
'Story of the First Sheykh and the Gazelle', Vol. 1 (Lane)
'The history of the First Old Man, and the Bitch', 22-24 (ANE)
'Histoire du premier Vieillard et de la Biche', Vol. 1:52-57 (Galland/Sermain)

Frame Story
2-10, 91, 128, 146, 196-197, 244, 273
'King Shahriyar and Shah Zaman' and 'King Shahriyar and Shahrazad', Vol. 1 & 'The end of the story of King Shahriyar and Shahrazad', Vol. 3 (Lyons)
'Conte du roi Shâhriyâr et de son frère le roi Shâh Zamân', Vol.1: 5-16 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'Prologue: The Story of King Shahrayar and Shahrazad, His Vizier’s Daughter', (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
'The Tale of King Shahryar and his Brother King Shahzaman', Vol. 1 & Conclusion, Vol. 6 (Mathers / Mardrus)
'Story of King Shahryar and His Brother', Vol. 1 & Conclusion, Vol. 10 (Burton)
‘Introduction’, Vol. 1 and ‘Conclusion’, Vol. 3 (Lane)
[Story of Scheherazade], 1-11 (ANE)
[Story of Scheherazade] Vol. 1:23-44 (Galland/Sermain)

p 12
'Ghanim ibn Ayyub, the slave of love,' Vol. 1 (Lyons)
(Bencheikh/Miquel) ?
'The Tale of Ghanim ibn Ayyub and His Sister Fitnah,' Vol.1 (Mathers/Mardrus)
'The Tale of Ghanim ib Ayyub, the Distraught, the Thrall of Love' Vol. 2(Burton)
Story of Ganem the Son of Ayoub, the Distracted Slave of Love, Vol.1 (Lane)
'The History of Ganem, Son to Abou Ayoub, and known by the Surname of Love's Slave', 535-571 (ANE)
'Histoire de Ganem Fils d'Abou Aibou, l'esclave d'amour', Vol. 2 : 377 -42(Galland/Sermain)
'The History of Gharib and his Brother Ajib’


'‘Ajib and Gharib', Vol. 2 (Lyons)
' 'Ajîb et Gharîb', Vol. 2: 688-819 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
'The History of Gharib and his brother Ajib', Vols. 6 & 7(Burton)
Harun al-Rachid

8, 93, 121,131, 137, 151, 165, 210
298, 313, 385, 405,420, *437-8*

‘Harun al-Rashid and the Fisherman’s Chest’
‘Harun al-Rashid and 'the second Caliph,' Vol. 1
‘Harun al-Rashid and the Slave girl Abu Yusuf,’
‘Harun al-Rashid and 'ali ibn Mansur,’
‘Harun al-Rashid, the slave girl and Abu Nuwas,’
‘Harun al-Rashid and the Lady Zubaida in the pool,’
‘Harun al-Rashid and the three poets,’
‘Harun al-Rashid and the two slave girls,’
‘Harun al-Rashid and the three slave girls,’ Vol. 2 (Lyons)

‘Conte de Calife Hârûn Ar-Rashîd et du faux calife,’
‘Conte de Alî le Persan devant Hârûn Ar-Rashîd,’
‘Conte de Calife Hârûn Ar-Rashîd de la jeune Esclave et de L'Imam Abû Yûsef, Vol. 1’
‘Conte D'Abû Nuwâs et de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd,’
‘Conte de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd et des filles,’
‘Conte de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd, du zubayda et D'Abû Yûsuf,’
‘Conte de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd et de l'amuseur,’
‘Conte de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd, et de son Fils Pieux,’ Vol. 2
‘Conte de Hârûn Ar-Rashîd et du jeune Omanais,’ Vol. 3 (Bencheikh/Miquel)

‘Tale of Sympathy the Learned, An Adventure of the Poet Abū Nūwās’,

in The Flowering Terrace of Wit and Garden of Gallantry, Vol. 3:

‘Al-Rachid and the Fart,’
‘ Al-Rachid Judges of Love,’
‘ Abu-Nowas and Zobeida's Bath’,
‘Meetings of Al-Rachid on the Bridge of Baghdad,’ Vol. 6 (Mathers / Mardrus)
‘The Adventures of Haroun-al-Raschid, Caliph of Bagdad’, Vol. 7(Burton)
‘The Adventures of the Caliphf Haroun Alraschid,’ 726-763 (ANE)
‘Les avantures de Calife Haroun Alraschid’ Vol. 3: 119-181 (Galland/Sermain)

'Hunchback' cycle, The
pp. 128, 364

‘The Hunchback’, Vol. 1 (Lyons)
‘Conte de tailleur, du bossu, du Juif, de L'intendant et du chrétien,’ Vol. 1 (Bencheik/Miquel)
‘The Story of the Hunchback’ (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
‘The Tale of the Hunchback with the Tailor, the Christian Broker, the Steward, and the Jewish Doctor; What Followed After; and the Tales Which Each of Them Told,’ Vol. 1 (Mathers/Mardrus)
‘The Hunchback’s Tale,’ Vol. 1 (Burton)
‘Story of the Humpback,’ Vol. 1 (Lane)
‘The Story of the Little Hunch-Back’ (ANE)
‘Histoire du petit Bossu,’ Vol. 1 (Galland/Sermain)

'Judar and his Brothers'
pp 114, 199, 200

‘Judar and his Brothers,’ Vol. 2 (Lyons)
‘Conte de Judar et de ses frères,’ Vol.2 (Bencheik/Miquel, 2005)
‘The Tale of Juder the Fisherman or the Enchanted Bag,’ Vol. 4 (Mathers/Mardrus) ‘Judar and his Brothers,’ vol. 7 (Burton)
‘Story of Joudar,’ Vol. 3 (Lane, 1850)

‘Jullanar of the Sea’

pp 45, 74, 129-130, 459

‘Julnar of the sea and her son, Badr Basim,’ Vol. 3 (Lyons)
‘Conte de Jullanar de la Mer, de son fils Badr Basim et de la princesse Jawhara,’ Vol. 3:55-93 (Bencheikh/Miquel)

‘The Story of Jullanar of the Sea’ (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
‘The Story of Beder, Prince of Persia, and Jehaunara, Prince of Samandal, or Summunder’, Vol. 3 (Mathers/Mardrus)
‘Julnar the Sea-Born and Her Son King Badr Basim of Persia, Vol. 7 (Burton)
‘Story of Gulnare of the Sea’, Vol. 3 (Lane)
‘The Story of Beder Prince of Persia, and Giahaure. Princess of Samandal,’ 482-534 (ANE)
‘Histoire de Beder, prince de Perse, et de Giauhare, princesse du royaume du Samandal, Vol. 2: 311-376 (Galland/Sermain)

The City of Labtayt

p. 63, 453

‘The City of Labtit,’ Vol. 1 (Lyons)
‘Conte de la ville de Labatît,’ Vol. 1:1031-2 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
‘The City of Labtayt’ Vol. 4 (Burton)

The Merchant and the Genie'
pp. 4, 45, 198

‘The Merchant and the Jinni’, Vol. 1 (Lyons)
‘Conte du marchand et du démon’, Vol 1:17-28 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
‘The Story of the Merchant and the Demon’, Vol. 1 (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
‘The Tale of the Merchant and the Ifrit,’ Vol. 1 (Mathers/Mardrus)
‘The Tale of the Trader and the Jinni,’ Vol. 1 (Burton)
‘Story of the Merchant and the Jinni,’ Vol. 1 (Lane)
‘The Merchant and the Genie’, Vol. 1:17-29 (ANE)
‘Le Marchand et le Génie,’ Vol.1:45-63 (Galland/Sermain)


'The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad'
pp 14, 16, 91, 93, 131, 139

‘The Porter and The Three Ladies’, Vol. 1 (Lyons)
‘Conte du portefaix et des trois dames,’ Vol. 1(Bencheikh/Miquel)
‘The Story of the Porter and the Three Ladies’ (Mahdi/Haddawy I)
‘The Tale of the Porter and the Young Girls’, Vol. 1 (Mathers/Mardrus)
‘The Porter and the three Ladies of Bagdad,’ Vol.1 (Burton)
‘Story of the Porter and the Ladies of Baghdad, and of the Three Royal Mendicants, Etc,’ Vol. 1 (Lane)
‘The Story of the three Calenders, Sons of Kings; and of the five Ladies of Bagdad,’ 66-139 (ANE)
‘Histoire de trois Calenders, fils de Roi, et de cinq dames de Bagdad’, Vol. 1

'Sayf al-Muluk and Princess Badiat al-Jamal'
pp 46--7, 127

‘The Story of Saif al-Muluk and Badi’ al-Jamal,’ Vol. 3 (Lyons)
‘Conte de Sayf al-Mulûk et Badî at al-Jamâl,’ Vol. 3 (Bencheikh/Miquel)
‘Story of Prince Sayf Al-Muluk and the Princess Badi'a Al-Jamal’ Vol. 7 (Burton)
‘Story of Seifelmolouk and Bedia Eljemal,’ Vol. 3 (Lane)


ANE Anon, Arabian Nights’ Entertainments [1708], Mack, Robert L. ed., (Oxford, 1998)

Bencheikh/Miquel Les mille et une Nuits, trans and ed. Bencheikh, Jamel Eddine and Miquel, André ( 3 vols., Paris: Gallimard , 2005)

Burton Burton, Richard, The Arabian Nights, (13 vols,, 2010)

EAN An Encyclopaedia of the Arabian Nights, Van Leeuwen, Richard and Marzolph, Ulrich et al., (2 vols , Denver and Oxford, 2004)

Galland/Sermain Galland, Antoine, Les mille et une Nuit: contes arabes , ed J.-P Sermain (3 vols, Paris, 2004)

Lane Lane, Edward William trans., The Arabian Nights’ Entertainments (3 vols, London, 1850)

Lyons Lyons, Malcolm C. with Lyons, Ursula trans., The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights (London, 2009)

Mahdi/Haddawy I Haddawy, Husain, trans., The Arabian Nights (New York, 1990)

Mahdi/Haddawy II Haddawy, Husain trans., The Arabian Nights II: Sindbad and Other Popular Stories (New York, 1995)

Mathers/Mardrus Mathers, Powys., from the French trans by Dr J. C. Mardrus, The Arabian Nights: The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night (6 vols, London, 2003)


Detail from The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926) by Lotte Reiniger

Additions and Corrections to Notes, and Originals of Translated Passages

Compiled with the help of Jasmine Richards 11 November 2011
Work in Progress (many accents missing)


vii Virginia Woolf, Moments of Being: Autobiographical Writings, ed. Jeanne Schulkind (London: Pimlico, 2002) 78–160: 85.


2 ...vindicates her sex: Ferial Ghazoul, Nocturnal Poetics: The Arabian Nights in Comparative Context (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1996) 18

5 girls against men: Ros Ballaster focuses on women writers’ uses of Oriental plots and characters to draw attention to their concerns, and argues strongly that the Oriental tale, as practised by women writers such as Clara Reeve and Frances Sheridan, was turned to convey an ideal of nation and forge a new community, open to female independence, and opposed to domestic and political tyranny. In the fiction of the long eighteenth century, ranging from the work of the radicals Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft to the novels of the conservative Jane Austen, Ballaster identifies many pairs of sisters who, by colluding like Dunyazad and Shahrazad, manage to impress their alternative view of a new dispensation on to their fellow characters and on their readers.

...a king called Saba: ANEnc I: 354 ff. ‘The Story of King Saba’.

6 non-human creature: See more on significance of unusual feet in Marina Warner and Tacita Dean, Footage, in Seven Books Grey: Tacita Dean (Steidl, 2011).

’aja’ib: See Roy Mottahadeh, ‘Ajaib in The Thousand and One Nights' in The Thousand and One Nights in Arabic Literature and Society Richard C. Hovannisian and Sabagh Georges, eds, (Cambridge: CUP, 1997) 29–39; 29.

against the evil eye : See Elliott Colla, Elliott Colla, 'The Ladies and the Eye: Figure and Narrative in the Porter's Tale' in, The Arabian Nights: Translations and Encounters, Marina Warner and Philip Kennedy eds., forthcoming. This remarkable image is translated by Lane with a paraphrase which catches its meaning but loses the startling quality: ‘if it were engraved on the understanding, it would be a lesson to him who would be admonished.’ Lane II: 269. Colla explores the relation between this inscribed eye and the mind’s eye.

9 variety... of narrative forms: See Ulrich Marzolph, ‘The Arabian Nights in Comparative Folk Narrative Research’ in Yamanaka / Nishio, Arabian Nights and Orientalism 3-24; Marina Warner, review of The Arabian Nights and Orientalism: Perspectives from East and West, eds.Yuriko Yamanaka and Tetsuo Nishio ; intro by Robert Irwin, TLS, 2006. Marzolph makes a strong case for applying the taxonomic system of comparative literature, as established chiefly in Scandinavia and Germany and enshrined in the compendiousinventory of tales and motifs known as the Stith-Thompson Index: he writes, ‘no method is better suited to revealing and unraveling the hybrid character of the Nights, many of whose tales belong to a complex web of traditions.’ (pg 6) For such an approach see, Hasan El-Shamy, “A Motif Index of Alf laylah wa laylah”, JAL 36 (2005), 3:235-68. He argues that the Nights compiles of ‘several tens of thousands of often newly conceived units.’l see also El-Shamy, H.,'Mythological Constituents of alf Laylah wa laylah’, in Yamanaka/Nishio, 25 – 46: 30 -32.

21 Gamal el-Ghitani: See, ‘Egypt’s Culture Wars: The puritans won’t give up a literary struggle between liberals and conservatives’ The Economist, May 13, 2010. Archived at: HYPERLINK "" [Last accessed: 22/03/11]

22 European reader: See, Tzvetan Todorov , The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre ( New York: Cornell University Press, 1975).

24 one image to another: Edward W. Said, ‘Raymond Schwab and the Romance
of Ideas’, in Edward W. Said, The World, the Text, and the Critic (London: Vintage, 1983, 1991) 248–267: 252, 259; See, Schwab, Raymond, L’Auteur des mille et une nuits: Vie d’Antoine Galland (Paris: Mercure de France, 1964) 252.

‘...desire to control and to possess.’ Said, ‘Raymond Schwab and the Romance of Ideas’ 264, discussing Raymond Schwab, The Oriental Renaissance: Europe’s Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680 to 1880 [1950], trans. Gene Patterson-Black and Victor Reuking (New York: Columbia UP, 1987).

26 projecting magic...inimical: ‘The fecundity of the Nights,’ Robert Mack, editor of the ANE, has commented, ‘can be perceived and represented as a source of aesthetic appeal and consolation, yet it is also (and no less naturally) a possible point of origin for threats to the varieties and orders of human experience.’ Robert Mack, ‘Cultivating the Garden...’ in Makdisi / Nussbaum, The Arabian Nights in Historical Context: 60


Chapter 1: Master of Jinn

36 Robin Williams: Roy Clements and John Musker, Aladdin, [1992] DVD. Directed by Roy Clements and John Musker, (USA: Disney, 2008).

38 Clavis Salomonis ... Ars notoria: I looked at the fine collection of MSS in the Wellcome Library ; see also S.L. Mac Gregor Mathers, trans., The Goetia. The Lesser Key of Solomon the King. Lemegeton vel Clavicula Salomonis regis, (Boston: Red Wheel/Weiser, l997) ; Gary Lachman, The Quest for Hermes Trismegistus From Ancient Egypt to the Modern World (Edinburgh: Floris, 2011).
...Hero Kings...and Vergil: See the fascinating study: Richard Stoneman, Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008),

39 ‘demon stories of East and West’: See M.R James ‘The Testament of Solomon’, trans. F.C. Conybeare, Jewish Quarterly Review (October 1898). Digital version:Joseph H Peterson, ed., HYPERLINK "", 1997 (Last accessed: 25/11/10). James tells us Ferdinand F. Fleck edited it in his Wissenschaftliche Reise (1837) from a late MS. at Paris; and it is also to be found - reprinted from Fleck - in Vol. CXXII of Migne's Greek Patrology, appended to the works of Michael Psellus.

41 Sura 38: Tarif Khalidi, trans., The Qur’an (Penguin Classics, India: Penguin, 2009) 38:31– 33: 291–292. See also extended quote: 38:30-35: 291 -292.
Alternative translation:
'We Gave David Solomon. He was an excellent servant who always turned to God. When well-bred light footed horses were paraded before him near the close of day, he kept saying, ‘My love of fine things is part of my remembering my Lord!’ until [the horses] disappeared from sight – bring them back!’ [he said] and started to stroke their legs and necks.’

This scene is followed by another, puzzling and elliptical passage:

'We certainly tested Solomon, reducing him to a mere skeleton on his throne. He turned to us and prayed: ‘Lord forgive me! Grant me such power as no one after me will have. You are the Most Generous Provider.’
M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, The Qur’an (Oxford World’s Classics, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). 38:30 -35: 291 -292

Sura 2: Tarif Khalidi, trans., The Qur’an 2:101-2, 370

Alternative Translation (extended quotation):

'When God sent them a messenger confirming the scriptures they already had, some of those who had received the Scriptures before threw the book of God over their shoulders as if they had no knowledge, and followed what the evil ones had fabricated about the Kingdom of Solomon instead. Not that Solomon himself was a disbeliever; it was the evil ones who were disbelievers. They taught people witchcraft and what was revealed in Babylon to the two angels Harut and Marut. Yet these two never taught anyone without first warning him, ‘We are sent only to tempt – do not disbelieve.’ From these two, they learned what can cause discord between man and wife, although they harm no one with it except by God’s leave. They learned what harmed them, not what benefited them, knowing full well that whoever gained [this knowledge] would lose any share in the Hereafter. Evil indeed is the [price] for which they sold their souls, if only they knew.'

M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, The Qur’an 2:101 -3: 12-13.

50 ‘...took good care’: Qur’an, trans. Khalidi, 21:82, 263. Alternative translation: ‘We made some of the jinn subservient to him, to dive for him and do other works besides’. Haleem, trans., The Qur’an, 21:82: 206-207.
‘...crush you unawares?’: Qur’an, trans. Khalidi, 305.

Solomon gives thanks: Qur’an, trans. Khalidi, 305.

Tarif Khalidi, trans., The Qur’an 27:18 -20, 305 ; ‘Ants, go into your homes, in case Solomon and his hosts unwittingly crush you.’ Solomon smiled broadly at her words and said, “Lord, inspire me to be thankful for the blessings You have granted me and my parents, and to do good deeds that please You; admit me by Your grace into the ranks of Your righteous servants.” ’ Haleem, The Qur’an, 27: 18 – 20: 240.
‘creature of earth’: or “animal of the earth’ (dabbat al-ard)The Qur’an, trans. Khalidi, 34:14, 347; Abdel Haleem, 34:14 273. Susanne Enderwitz writes, in a personal communication, that the German translation reads ‘wurm’ (worm), and that ‘ant’ and ‘termite’ are also sometimes identify this animal. She continues, 'Arabic names for animals are often homonymic and as the legends often use related notions, differences in the identification of this animal are not as important as they might first appear in English translation.' Additionally, Solomon is said to have understood the language of ‘ants’.

mortality is revealed: Al-Tabari (d. 923), in Lives of the Prophets, elaborates the story: Solomon studies the plants growing in the Temple as it is going up and realises that one of them will be the destruction of the building, so he cuts it down and makes the staff on which he leans after he has died. See Shalev-Eyni (2006), 146.

Story 2: The City of Brass

..the great king Solomon: Solomon is a historical ruler of Damascus from 685-705 CE during the Umayyad caliphate.

...Solomon in repentance: in Burton the Jinn are imprisoned in ‘curcurbites’ of copper, stopped with lead and sealed with Solomon’s ring: ‘he was wont to imprison Jinns and Marids and Satans in cucurbites of copper and stop them with lead and seal them with his ring.’ This is a typical Burtonism: Over ripe and wieldy. Burton was highly invested in the Islamic content of the Nights and consequently gives more detail of the djinns’ fate than other translators. His rendering of Talib the Traveller’s tale continues:

‘my father told me of my grandfather, that he once took ship with a company, intending for the island of Sikiliyah or Sicily, and sailed until there arose against them a contrary wind, which drove them from their course and brought them, after a month, to a great mountain in one of the lands of Allah the Most High [...]There we saw a man casting his net to catch fish, and presently he pulled them up and behold, in them was a cucurbite of copper, stopped with lead and sealed with the signet of Solomon, son of David, on whom be peace! He brought the vessel to land and broke it open, when there came forth a smoke, which rose a-twisting blue to the zenith, and we heard a horrible voice, saying, ‘I repent! I repent! Pardon, O Prophet of Allah! I will never return to that which I did aforetime.’ Then the smoke became a terrible Giant frightful of form, whose head was level with the mountain-tops, and he vanished from our sight, whilst our hearts were well-nigh torn out for terror; but the blacks thought nothing of it. Then we returned to the King and questioned him of the matter; whereupon quoth he, ‘Know that this was one of the Jinns whom Solomon, son of David, being wroth with them, shut up in these vessels and cast into the sea, after stopping the mouths with melted lead. Our fishermen ofttimes, in casting their nets, bring up such bottles, which being broken open, there come forth of them Jinnis who, deeming that Solomon is still alive and can pardon them, make their submission to him and say, I repent, O Prophet of Allah!’” – Burton, Vol. 6, 74

Mathers/Mardrus, Vol 3, 206 only gives: ‘O prince of Believers, it was in those copper jars that the Jinn who rebelled against the orders of Sulaiman were imprisoned in times past; afterwards they were sealed with the powerful seal and thrown to the bottom of the moaning sea in the outermost parts of Maghrib in western Africa.’

…holds the Jars: Mathers/Mardrus, Vol 3, 208

‘the once …the great’ Ibid, 212

57 ...visit of the Queen of Sheba’: 'Under the white radiance falling from on high… spread out the domes of palaces, the terraces of houses, calm gardens leveled in the living brass, moon-bright canals making a thousand wanderings in and out of the shadows of trees, and , lowest of all, a metal sea holding in its cold breast the drowned fires of the sky.' Mardrus/Mathers, Vol.3, 218.

looking and moving: ‘ Indeed, she is but a corpse embalmed with exceeding art; her eyes were taken out after her death and quicksilver set under them, after which they were restored to their sockets. Wherefore they glisten and when the air moveth the lashes, she seemeth to wink and it appeareth to the beholder as though she looked at him, for all she is dead.’ Burton, Vol. 6, 100

58 ...who once appeared to them: This is al-Khadir, the legendary angel-cum-prophet of Muslim folklore.

...rebellion against Solomon: ‘slap the jars …to extract an oath from those within that they will acknowledge the truth of the mission or our Prophet, Muhammad, to atone for their first fault and rebellion against the supremacy of Sulaiman…’ Mardrus/Mathers, Vol.3, 226.

soon die of heat stroke: Ibid, 228

Chapter 2: Riding the Wind: The Flying Carpet I

60 the winds...Queen of Sheba comes: The wind is sometimes named, as Rukha, see Seymour (1924), 81.

61 a kind of spinnaker: The difference is recognized within the story of the City of Brass itself, when later Abraham appears in a dream to Solomon to prophesy the coming of the Prophet Muhammad; there, he explicitly invokes the Prophet’s own flying vehicle, his beloved mare Buraq, who ‘remains, says Abraham, ‘in Paradise until the birth of Mohammed.’

63 ...Nature of Human Achievement: The British Library has a rare tiny (3 pp) volume by Rudyard Kipling, The City of Brass (New York: Doubleday, 1909) which catches the gloating notes of the satisfied moralist which the theme can inspire:
'In a land that the sands overwhelm – the hands that destroyed it are dust – They employed not the sword nor the helm, but enjoyed the fulfillment of lust;
Till they found the reward that awaited and were doomed and dismissed to their fall,
And of these is a story related: and Allah alone knoweth all.’

Chapter 3: A Tapestry of Great Price: The Flying Carpet II

74 Epigraph: '...le bouleversement sera complet dans les mondes désorbites, le fauteuil magique le [l'homme qui dort] fera voyager a toute vitesse dans le temps et dans l'espace, et au moment d'ouvrir les paupières, il se croira couche quelques mois plus tôt dans une autre contrée.’ Marcel Proust, A la Recherche du temps perdu, trans. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin, 12 vols (Paris: Gallimard, 1954), I:16; (London: Hogarth) I: 4. [Moncrieff has ‘the world will go hurtling out of orbit’.]

78 range of metamorphic experiences: The Efteling theme park in the Netherlands is a commercial fairyland which opened in 1952, and has entertained children according to pedagogical principles developed by a culture which long prided itself on its educational progressiveness. Again, the entertainments are inspired by the Arabian Nights – the giant ‘Bird Rok’, and in the part of the park called The Fairy Realm, local concerns are spliced with Oriental plotlines: a sultan rallies from his melancholy when presented with an onion – an onion which miraculously grows into a tulip. The ride where this story is told ends when the fakir who brought the magic bulb sails past the palace window, seated cross-legged on his carpet. The Sultan ‘almost chokes’ with surprise at the sight.
This light, entertaining, genuinely child-friendly episode purpose built for a Dutch family outing nevertheless slants an Arabian Night-style tale in two uncharacteristic directions: first, the ride’s story implies that true wonder arises from natural phenomena, from a flower which is presented as a spontaneous miracle. Beauty emerges from a dull old onion. Secondly, the flying carpet belongs to a holy man of the exotic religion, and it is he who has produced the tulip. Enchantment is returned to creation (the human husbandry involved in developing the tulip and the trade in the bulbs form no part of this story) and magic is safely contained as foreign, but orthodox according to the tenets of that foreign faith. So along two distinctive axes, the story intends to edify the audience and keep them safe from disturbing ideas: magic is normative, part of nature’s wonders; enchanters are foreign, but well-behaved. No Persian Bahrams with nasty morals to prey on the fantasies of visitors.

81 ‘...fabulous vicissitudes’: ‘… anziché essere considerate un ornamento che infiora la struttura portante degli intrecci e delle funzioni narrative, avanzano in primo piano come la vera sostanza del testo, contornate dal filiforme arabesco decorativo delle peripezie fabulative…’ Italo Calvino, ‘La mappa delle metafore’, in Calvino, Sulla Fiaba (1996), 129–146, 138.

Chapter 5: Egyptian Attitudes

103 ‘...spirits in the night-time’: Virgil; Aeneid, BK, IV, lines 478 -492 (1969), 112:

'inveni, germana, viam (gratare sorori)
quae mihi reddat eum vel eo me solvat amantem.
Oceani finem iuxta solemque cadentem              
ultimus Aethiopum locus est, ubi maximus Atlas
axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum:
hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos,
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi
quae dabat et sacros servabat in arbore ramos,               
spargens umida mella soporiferumque papaver.
haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes
quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas,
sistere aquam fluviis et vertere sidera retro,
nocturnosque movet Manis: mugire videbis               
sub pedibus terram et descendere montibus ornos.
testor, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque
dulce caput, magicas inuitam accingier artis.

Traditionally, in illustrations of Virgil, for example, she is assumed to be the same person; however the transition from the distant Massylian to the actual officiant at the pyre takes place without explanation.

108 examined and edited now: See Professor Rob Iliffe (dir.), The Newton Project (University of Sussex, 2011); HYPERLINK "" (accessed 2/5/11).

113 ...not least by herself: Webster, John, The White Devil V:i; in The Selected Plays of John Webster and John Ford, ed. G.B. Harrison (London: J. M. Dent, 1969), 68–70. Xanche dies speaking of her complexion:
I am proud:
Death cannot alter my complexion,
For I shall ne’er look pale.

114 ...foreign women...devotion: see for example, Maryse Conde, Moi Tituba,sorciere (Paris: Gallimard, 1988) ; Marina Warner, “Noonday Devils”: review of Elaine Breslaw, Tituba Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies (New York, 1996) LRB 18, No. 11 (6 June, 1996) 8-9.

Story 5: Hasan of Basra

118 ‘They harbour...everything’: In Lane’s translation, Hasan's mother warns him: ' These Persians are cheats and libertines;their learning is alchemy, and Allah alone knows what snares they set in the darkness of their souls for the confounding of their fellow men.' Lane, ‘Story of Hassan of Balsora’ Vol. 3, 213-356.

Henbane: Specified in the Mardrus/Mathers (Vol.4) translation as ‘Cretan banj’ andi n Bencheikh/Miquel) as ‘jusquiame’,Vol.3: 158-9.

Chapter 6: Magicians and Dervishes

137 ‘...Sufi s of Isfahan’: 'au celebre Dervis Mocles, que la Perse met au nombre de ses grands personnages. Il etoit Chef des Sofis d'Ispahan... [et] il passoit pour un scavant Cabaliste.' Pétis de la Croix, Les mille et un Jour, 5 vols (Lyons: Frerès Bruyset,1717), 1: 2. (2006), 331.

Chapter 7: Dream Knowledge

151 ‘...transitory window.’ On avait bien invente, pour me distraire les soirs ou on me trouvait l'air trop malheureux, de me donner une lanterne magique dont, en attendant l'heure du diner, on coiffait ma lampe; … elle substituait a l'opacité des murs d'impalpables irisations, de surnaturelles apparitions multicolores, ou des légendes étaient dépeintes comme dans un vitrail vacillant et momentané. Proust, À la Recherche du temps perdu, 1:20–21; Proust, Moncrieff, trans., et al., In Search of Lost Time, 1: 8.

153 Jackson Pollock: Steph Polcari ‘Contexte, Infl uences, Références’, in Jackson Pollock et le Chamanisne’, 11–16, 25. Pollock undertook Jungian analysis intermittently between 1938 and 1943. Polcari argues persuasively for its importance in Pollock's development: ' In that time, the artist visualised symbols of animals and elements in furious fusion; this was the genesis of the gestural dynamics of the kinetic frenzy that made him the founder and darling of the post-war avant-garde.' While he was undergoing the analysis, the artist visited two major exhibitions of primitive art held in New York, and wanted to immerse himself in the forces that were embodied in the artefacts he saw there; far from expressing his inner turmoil, as is most commonly understood by his whirling work, Pollock was sinking himself into cosmic forces, uniting with the elements, with fire and water, and visualising sacred couplings and violent immolations to unleash renewal. The show gave evidence for his interest in the art of the South Seas and the Native American Indians, and recast the usual view of Pollock the individualist, spontaneous genius. He had entered a new way of expressing himself by surrendering himself whole-heartedly to the idea that shamanic forms of ecstasy (drink or drug-induced in his case) are not unique or individual; the images that return have a universal significance for the larger group, the shaman's society and tribe, the Avant-garde of post-war America and, as it turned out with abstract expressionism of the West. Pollock's animal vision conveys a sympathy with the natural world which has become more politicised since Romanticism, while attitudes to animals have been profoundly altered in the post-Darwinian world.

Russian empire’s march eastwards: Johannes Scheffer, History of the Lapps: A most true description of their origin, superstition, magical rites, nourishment, culture, and trade of the Lapps, etc. etc.’ (Frankfurt,1673). Shaman is first cited in 1698 in the OED, designating a healer from the many nomadic peoples living in the regions on the outer perimeter of the Arctic circle in steppes and forests of the sub-polar regions from Lapland to Mongolia to Alaska; the etymology is uncertain but it probably enters English via Ger. Schamane.
The explorers Daniel Gottlieb Messerchmidt and, later, Georg Wilhelm Steller made two tremendous expeditions, on behalf of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, to the circumpolar regions of Kamchatka in 1725-30 and 1733- 1743; their studies spread the concept of shamanism. Catherine the Great was a moderniser in thought though not in social reform, the patron of many Enlightenment projects, of philosophers and artists and musicians; the explorations she backed brought back a vast accumulation of specimens and artefacts from these cultures which were slowly catalogued and studied.

drummed himself unconscious: The book was translated almost immediately from Latin into English, and four years later into French; its arcane knowledge travelled learned circles, supporting the interest in the nomadic northern people, their difference and their spiritual life. Sir Hans Sloane (died in 1753), a founder of the British Museum, included among his treasures a shaman's drum which had been brought from the region where Scheffer explored: the far north, where Scandinavia borders Russia, in Eurasia. Here people – the Sami – lived by herding reindeer, and used drums to access the spirit world. The designs on this reindeer hide drum might relate, the catalogue of the BM cautiously proposes, to 'the position of the stars, and chart the journey of the shaman's spirit during religious rituals.'

‘...“safety value” of the clan.’: Johannes Scheffer, History of the Lapps 365 ; The function of the shaman lies in drawing off the collective dangers to the tribe, both external in the form of famine and cold, and internal in the form of illness, distress, and neurosis – Their ordeals were undertaken on behalf of the group, not for themselves: the shaman usually elected to take this path after a personal crisis, a period of instability, or even epilepsy, but after that, he or she performed on behalf of others, to guarantee the tribe protection from danger, to resist illness and to obtain food. One shamanic oath on record reads: ‘I promise to be the protector of the wretched, father of the poor, mother of the orphans.’ See, ‘A Yakut Shaman’, in Anatole Lewitsky, ‘Shamanism’, in The College of Sociology (1937–39), ed. Denis Hollier, trans. Betsy Wing (Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press, 1988), 248–261, 255.

Chapter 8: ‘Everything You Desire to Know about the East...’

163 surpass all other peoples... 'If tales of this kind are pleasant and entertaining through the marvels that dominate them as a matter of course, the ones [printed here] should surpass in this respect all those which have appeared so far, as they are filled with surprising and gripping events, and reveal how far the Arabs surpass all other nations in this sort of composition…' Galland/Sermain I, 21
172 artists condense images: Luther allowed cheap holy pictures because they were 'images of memory', prompts to devotion. ' In other words, 'you do not believe in these rough reproductions...but they remind you of something; something that you already know'. This was precisely what an image should do. The correct function of an image was not primarily to represent something in a visually convincing way but rather to refer to something – the Word or the dogma – as a sign to remind one of it.'
See Hanne Kolind Poulsen, ‘At brande Frederik 2. Om Melchior Lorcks kobberstik- portræt a Frederik 2’, SMK Art Journal, 2006: 22–35, trans. English on website of Statens Museum für Kunst, Copenhagen.

Prospect of Constantinople: The full reference in the Leiden Library catalogue is: Byzantium sive Constantineopolis. [Door] Melchior Lorichs.[Constantinopel/Wenen,1559 [1561(?)] – (BPL 1758); reproduced in facsimile in [Lorck] (2009), 4. It was originally made up of 21 sheets of paper glued together, which have now been separated for conservation purposes, reproduced in facsimile, leporello-style, in Vol. 4 of the catalogue. The Prospect was given to the Library in Leiden almost as soon as it was completed, and used to hang in the reading room, but it was then rolled up and left in an attic and only salvaged in the nineteenth century; the extensive damage it had suffered looks like the work of rats, not only damp. The artist could not have grasped all this from a single position, but has telescoped eight vantage points into one. See Marco Iuliano, ‘Melchior Lorck’s Constantinople in the European Context’, in [Lorck] (2009), 4: 25–60:51–60.

174 ...his Turkish project: Lorck's attempt to persuade a patron to subsidise his Turkish project failed, and he disappears from view around l582. He worked briefly for the Rudolph II of Prague, a collector of curiosities and a very suitable match for the Danish artist. The last known drawings by him depict two African figures, A Woman of Nigeria and A Woman of the Gambia. So he seems to have continued his travels.

184 Romantic uses of the past: See, Susan Oliver, Scott, Byron and the Poetics of Cultural Encounter (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).

185 ‘...year of 1842’: 'Elle était richement habillée à la mode turque; une veste de velours vert, surchargée d’ornements, serrait sa taille d’abeille; …un mouchoir de satin blanc, étoilé et constellé de paillettes, lui servait de ceinture. Des pantalons larges et bouffants lui descendaient jusqu’aux genoux; des jambières à l’albanaise en velours brodé garnissaient ses jambes fines et délicates aux jolis pieds nus enfermés dans de petites pantoufles de maroquin gaufré, piqué, colorié et cousu de fils d’or; un caftan orange, broché de fleurs d’argent, un fez écarlate enjolivé d’une longue houppe de soie, complétaient cette parure assez bizarre pour rendre des visites à Paris en cette malheureuse année 1842. Theophile Gautier, Romain Pehel ed., La mille et deuxieme nuit, (Paris: Editions Mille et une nuits No 427, 2003), 11. (My translation)

186 ‘...trembling shoulders.’: sur ses epaules fremissantes s’ebauchaient vaguement des ailes de papillon’ Gautier, La mille et deuxieme nuit, 39.

189 Claudius as CEO: Hamlet, dir. David Birkin, Old Fire Station, Oxford (1998). On historical anachronism: See Michael Neill, introduction, Anthony and Cleopatra (1994), pp. 29–67, 132-4, where he discusses historical antiquarianism in his edition of the play in respect of the use of ‘h’ in Anthony, which he decided to keep. 'The “look” of such crucial details can be of some importance in determining the “feel” of the text; and it can be argued that the attempt to give the names in their ‘correct’ form is a textual counterpart of the theatrical attempts to archaeologize the play which reached their disastrous apogee in the spectacular nineteenth-century productions that boasted their pedigree from “the splendid Collection of Roman and Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum.” ' See also Jonathan Gil Harris,'Introduction:Dis/Placing Michael Neill', in The Shakespearean
International Yearbook 11: Special issue, Placing Michael Neill.
Issues of Place in Shakespeare and
Early Modern Culture
(Ashgate 2011), 1-24:7.

Chapter 9: The Thing-World of the Arabian Nights

195 through the pages of a book: The tale of the poisoned book is told with variations by Alexandre Dumas in La Reine Margot (1845). He dramatises a legend that the queen coated a book with arsenic intending to kill her husband, but her son opened the book instead. Umberto Eco in The Name of the Rose (l980) also makes a poisoned book the mystery murder weapon.

197 continuing to speak: The stories of St Edmund, St Kenelm, St Osyth and St Sidwell in England, St Denis in France, St Melor and St Winifred in Celtic territory, preserve the pattern and strengthen the link between legend and folklore. Beatrice White, ‘A Persistent Paradox’, Folklore, 83:2 (Summer 1972), 122–31: 123. cf. The Divine Comedy: Inferno, Canto 28, 121–3:
E'l capo tronco tenea per le chiome
Peso col mano, a giusa di lanterno:
E quei mirava noi, e dicea: "O me!"
(And it was holding the severed head by the hair
Swinging it in hand like a lantern,
And it was gazing at us and saying: “O me!”)

Story 8: ‘The Story of Abu Mohammed the Lazy

210 barber at the public baths: Lane has ‘cupper’ as his profession at the baths.

...topazes, rubies and others: Bencheikh/Miquel I: 1102, my translation. Lane has ‘skirts were adorned with emeralds…’ II:268.
212 ‘a marid of the genii’: Lane I :275 ; Bencheikh/Miquel I:1107
sayings are set at naught: Bencheikh/Miquel I: 1108
213 the sun never rises’: Bencheikh/Miquel I: 1111.

Chapter 10: The Word of the Talisman
217 antikos, a seer: 'mantikos e telester bios', Plato, Phaedrus. 248d.
225 ‘...Allah’s name invoking’: Goethe, ‘Charms’, in Goethe (1998)8–9.

Talisman in Carneol
Glaubigen bringt er Gluck und Wohl...
Alles Ubel treibt er fort,
Schutzet dich und schutz den Ort :
Wenn das eingegrabne Wort
Allahs Namen rein verkundet…’

It is interesting that ‘Talisman’ is italicised here, as an imported foreign word.

228 growing reputation: The story continues: Lady Flora Hastings (d, 1839), wrote a ballad about Robert the Bruce, in which she told the story of his heart’s journey back to the Holy Land; her nephew, the 3rd Marquess of Bute,  followed the tradition and wanted his heart to be buried in the Mount of Olives. He was a famous convert to Catholicism and a patron of the Gothic Revival in architecture and design and had a special reliquary casket designed for his heart. After the family carried out his wishes, mingling the heart with the earth, the casket was brought back and was first displayed again in 2006 when the artist Nathan Coley created an installationin the family house . See Andrew McLean, ‘ Tale of a Noble Heart’: 40-45; Andrea Schlieker, ‘Negotiating the Invisible: Nathan Coley at Mount Stuart’:9-20, in Nathan Coley, Mount Stuart 2006 (Isle of Bute: Mount Stuart Trust  2006);

230 ‘...talisman’s deep bane.’: Libretto downloaded from web. The opera premiered in 1887.

'Desdemona, guai se lo perdi! Guai!
          Una possente maga ne ordia la stame arcano:
          ivi e riposta l’alta malia d’un talismano.' 
the air of heaven: See, Ibid:
‘…piu bianco, piu lieve
che fiocco di neve,
che nube tessuta
dall’aure del ciel.’

233 meaning stitched into it: In ‘Charms’, Goethe notices the similarities between inscribed Islamic talismans, amulets and Catholic practices such as the scapular: ‘Manner hangen die Papiere/ Glaubig um, als Skapuliere.' ('Men of faith will wear these papers,/ Scapulars unseen by gapers.’) See Goethe, 'Segenspfander' ( 'Charms'), “West-Ostlicher Divan”, (Poems of the West and East: West- Eastern Divan) Trans., Whaley, in Germanic Studies in America: 8-9.

Chapter 11: The Voice of the Toy

243 ‘...only truth there is.’: ‘Je veux des évenements singuliers, des Fées, des Talismans ; car ne vous y trompez pas, au moins, il n’y a que cela de vrai’ Claude Crébillon, fils, Le Sopha: Conte moral (1742), ix. The novel was translated by Eliza Haywood and William Hatchett the same year. Bonamy Dobrée re-translated it in 2000.
while sitting on him: ‘…quand deux Personnes se donneraient mutuellement, & sur moi, leurs Prémices’, ibid.

Chapter 12: Money Talks

252 ‘...Loquacious dumb....’: [Gildon] ‘The Introduction; or the First Nights Entertainment’ (London: 1710 on title page, but BL catalogue gives 1709.) 2–4. Given his voice, the louis d’or rants in hotly eloquent, almost Biblical fury, about the specific illusion by which naming something as this or that persuades the spectator or user of the fact : ‘I have seen the morose sour Minister of State hug the rotten remains of Footmen and Porters under the specious names of Virgins and Citizens Wives…I have seen others that have with a Gogle of Detestation damn’d all the Frailties of Nature and Youth swallow the Estates of Widows and Orphans, with more ease than a Glass of white wine…’ ibid., 4

254 garrulous money: Anon., The Adventures of a One Pound Note; a poem, Written by Myself (London, 1819). The conceit also listened in on metal coin: for example, Helenus Scot, Adventures of of a Rupee (1783), opens:

‘When first in public life I came,
My beauty much respect did claim.’

255 ‘...had collapsed.’: ‘Object 72: Ming Banknote’, in MacGregor (2010), 465–9. Listen to the podcast: MacGregor, No. 72: A History of the World in 100 Objects (BBC Radio 4, 15 Sept. 2010). HYPERLINK "" (Accessed 19 April 2011.)

256 ban on usury: ‘Obect 99: Credit Card. Issued in the United Arab
Emirates, AD 2009’, in MacGregor (2010), 647–651. Listen to the podcast: Neil MacGregor, No. 99 A History of the World in 100 Objects (First Broadcast on BBC Radio 4, 22 Oct, 2010) HYPERLINK "" (Accessed 19 April 2011).

259 ‘...anything/You please.’: Ibid., 4: lines 6119ff. 47. Alternative translation:

For, swifter than wit or wordy powers
            That little slip makes love’s rich favours our,
            No nuisance with a purse or wallet there…
            Such paper-wealth, replacing pearls or gold,
            Is practical….
            (Goethe, 1984) Trans. Philip Mayne

Chapter 13: Magnificent Moustaches: Hamilton’s Fooling,
Voltaire’s Impersonations

265 Device of a Bed Trick: See, Wendy Doniger, The Bedtrick: Tales of Sex and Masquerade (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2000)

266 ‘The plumage of love’: Mozart, Così fan tutte, ossia La Scuola degli Amanti, trans. anon., HYPERLINK "" libretto-english.html.

Guardate, Toccate,
Il tutto osservate:
Siam forti e ben fatti,
E come ognun vede,
Sia merto, sia caso,
Abbiamo bel piede,
Bell'occhio, bel naso;
Guardate, bel piede, osservate, bell'occhio,
Toccate, bel naso, il tutto osservate:
E questi mustacchi
Chiamare si possono
Trionfi degli uomini,
Pennacchi d'amor.

269 great ladies: His audience included, for example, Henrietta Bulkeley, sister-in-law of the Duke of Berwick, the son of King James II, and therefore a claimant to the English throne during Cromwell’s Protectorate. I have written about Hamilton in more detail in Fantastic Metamorphoses, Other Worlds : Ways of Telling the Self (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), .

270 ‘ they do these days.’: ‘on dit d’abord qu’il falloit aller brûler la mère aux gaines toute vive. La tentative eut été inutile, les sorcières de ce tems-la ne se laissoient pas brûler comme en ces tems-çi. “Le Bélier”’, Le Cabinet des Fées (Amsterdam and Paris, 1785), Vol. XX, 49.

Schéhérazade’s head: A handful of other tales, including ‘Le Bélier’ (The Ram, 1785 ), sets so many stories one inside the other and doubles so many characters and plotlines, that the tyrant who is the target audience, cries out in anguish that he has become utterly lost.

272 ‘...right to err.’: Voltaire, R. Pearson, ed., and trans. Candide and Other Stories (Oxford: 2006) 178–189:189.:
On a banni les démons et les fées;
Sous la raison les grâces étouffées
Livrent nos coeurs à l'insipidité;
Le raisonner tristement s'accrédite;
On court, hélas! après la vérité;
Ah! croyez-moi, l'erreur a son mérite.

Voltaire’s contes were translated into English soon after their fi rst appearance. See H.N. Brailsford, ed., Candide and Other Tales, trans., Tobias Smollett, revised by James Thornton (London: Everyman, 1937.)
276 château at Sceaux: Roger Pearson, ‘White Magic’, Kennedy/Warner. He refers to  Jacqueline Hellegouarc’h, ‘Mélinade ou la duchesse du Maine’, and ‘Genèse d’un conte de Voltaire’, in Studies in Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century [henceforth SVEC], 176 (1979) 7-36; and Christiane Mervaud’s introduction in OC,1B (2002), 51- 81. The theme of the fifth ‘Grande Nuit’, on 31 July 1714, was ‘le Sommeil chassé du château et retiré dans le pavillon de l’Aurore y est poursuivi par le lutin de S[c]eaux’ (see Maurel, La duchesse du Maine, 80), and it is tempting to imagine Le Crocheteur borgne as fitting this particular bill.
277 against small-pox: Lady Montagu, herself disfigured by the disease, learned during her visit to Turkey ( 1716-18), that mothers, grandmothers or nursemaids introduced a scab into the nostrils of babies. She performed likewise, first on her son, and then her daughter, to the horror of her contemporaries at home. It may have been at the baths that this was done: ‘it was common in that environment to find female herbalists, magicians and medical practitioners.’ see Aravamudan, ‘Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in the Hammamn,’ 88–90; idem, ‘Womanliness, and Levantinization’, ELH 62: 1 (1995), 69–104: 88–90. Edward Jenner discovered how to ‘vaccinate’, using dead cells, in 1798; see also Arabick Roots, exh. cat., 54, 58–61.

‘...the wine of Surinam’: Voltaire, La Princesse de Babylone: http:// (accessed 2/10/10).

‘Nous aurons tout le temps de vous faire travailler un petit canapé commode avec des tiroirs où l’on mettra vos provisions de bouche. Vous serez très à votre aise dans cette voiture avec votre demoiselle. Les deux griffons sont les plus vigoureux de leur espèce; chacun d’eux tiendra un des bras du canapé entre ses griffes; mais encore une fois, les moments sont chers. » Il alla sur-le-champ avec Formosante commander le canapé à un tapissier de sa connaissance. Il fut achevé en quatre heures. On mit dans les tiroirs des petits pains à la reine, des biscuits meilleurs que ceux de Babylone, des poncires, des ananas, des cocos, des pistaches et du vin d’Éden, qui l’emporte sur le vin de Chiras autant que celui de Chiras est au-dessus de celui de Surenne.’

278 brazen blasphemy: Voltaire, The White Bull (2006), 254–86; see also, A rational and utilitarian philosopher, in London  subtitled: ‘An oriental history from an ancient Syriac ms. Communicated by M. Voltaire. … Philosterasti Pantophagi [lover of wonders devourer of everything] The whole faithfully done into English. Jeremy Bentham, trans., (London: John Murray, 1788) riskily outspoken: Philip Pullman has mounted his assault on the institutions of Christianity as a deadly serious story, both in the trilogy, His Dark Materials, and in The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ. (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2010). Levity is no longer permitted in these matters. When I first considered including 'The White Bull' in my undergraduate course on the transformations of fairytale, I was worried that the merciless mockery it makes of all religion would shock the class too deeply. This has not been the case, as the irresistible laughter the story provokes seems to remove the offence. )

Chapter 14: ‘Symbols of Wonder’: William Beckford’s Arabesque

291 ‘...modern imagination.’: ‘Une poésie […] bien inoubliablement liée au livre apparaît dans quelque étrange juxtaposition d’innocence quasi idyllique avec les solennités énormes ou vaines de la magie: alors se teint et s’avive, comme les vibrations noires d’un astre, la fraîcheur de scènes naturelles, jusqu’au malaise; mais non sans rendre a cette approche du rêve quelque chose de plus simple et de plus extraordinaire.’

‘A [kind of] poetry, quite unforgettably bound up with the book, appears in a rather strange juxtaposition of quasi-idyllic innocence with enormous or futile magical solemnities: like the dark vibrations of a star, this then colours and quickens the freshness of the natural scenes to the point of discomfort; but not without giving this approximation of a dream something more simple and more extraordinary.’ Stéphane Mallarmé, ‘Préface à Vathek’ [1876], in Vathek et ses épisodes, ed. Didier Gérard (Paris: José Corti, 2003), 419–435: 421, 433.

292 demons and jinn: See Warner (2001), 119–160, for Southey and Coleridge, and Warner (2006) on the influence of Caribbean magic on psychic explorations.

293 Entirely new to Europe: See Appendix I, Concordance, ANEnc II: 743–782 for clear and useful tables of the different stories in different translations and manuscripts.

to this material: The Beckford scholar Laurent Châtel has discovered a note from Francis Douce on his copy of the book, saying : ‘One of Wortley Montagu’s Mss. Fell into M. Beckford’s hands. A Turk who was on a visit to him translated into very bad English the story of Vathek which was in this Mss. M Beckford’s translated the Turk’s version into French with great alterations and additions.’ Laurent Châtel, “Re-Orienting William Beckford : Translating and Adapting the Thousand and one Nights” in Kennedy/Warner.

wandering imagination.’: Beckford, Préface (1992), 23; ‘J’avais commencé à le traduire littéralement. Mon maître d’arabe, un vieux  musulman natif de la Mecque, me l’avait recommandé comme exercise de langue. ..Zemir voulu me brider, comme de raison, mais ayant pris le mors au dent, je me suis emporté au grand galop dans les régions de ma voyageuse imagination. Voici le résultat. C’est peu de chose.’
In the edition of Vathek published in 1787, Beckford asserts that it is not a translation from Arabic, as Henley had stated the year before. William Beckford, Vathek Conte Arabe (Paris, 1787), 1-2 ; Beckford (1998), 163–164.

294 Loutherbourg’s works on canvas: For example, the iron and steel works in his Coalbrookdale by Night 1801, Science Museum, London.

late eighteenth century: Warner (2006); Tom Gunning, ‘Illusions Past and Future: The Phantasmagoria and its Spectres’: HYPERLINK "" (accessed: 19/3/11)

306 antipathy to colonialism: But this aspect of Beckford's does not concern me here, except to say that his fierce attachment to freedom, rooted in tolerance of individual difference and sexual ambiguity, evolved after his wife's death into a reclusive eccentricity; over a long life, he showed no liking or support for the class into which he was born or served its interests after a very brief spell as an MP. See Laurent Châtel, “ Les sources des contes orientaux de William Beckford”: 93-106 ; Landry,

Châtel, Laurent “Re-Orienting William Beckford”in Kennedy/Warner.

Chapter 15: Oriental Masquerade: Goethe’s West-Eastern Divan

314 ‘...Barmecides once knew.’: WED/Whaley, 2–3: 14–15. Goethe rings a neat masculine rhyme on ‘beschieden’, ‘allotted to me’. 'Barmecides' appears without a note; the reader/audience was not likely to know it in early nineteenth century Germany.
316 (even of self-annihilation): Goethe, “Lied und Gebilde (Song and Form)”, WED/Whaley 236. Luke gives alternative translation: 
We let our hands
With ravishment
Sweep through Euphrates’
Liquid element.
The soul’s brand slaked,
A song resounds
The poet cups his hand,
The water rounds.

Pp ??

317 praise to the beloved: Goethe with great glee adapted the form of the “so-called Mohammedan rosary in which Allah’s name is glorified through 99 attributes…” in order to compose a cycle of love songs to Suleika – a litany of praise to the beloved.Goethe, “Dschelaleddin Rumi”, from The West-Eastern Divan, quoted in Hendrik Birus, ‘Goethe’s Approximation of the Ghazal and its Consequences’, in Ghazal as World Literature:Transformations of a Literary Genre I, ed. Th. Bauer and A. Neuwirth, Beiruter Texte und Studien 89, 2005, 415–429: 424.

illuminated manuscripts):See, Hafi Aurang of Jami, Safavid Iran, Khurasan, 1560- 70 OA 1914-4-7-07, reproduced in Curtis and Canby, “Introduction”, in Persian Love Poetry (London: British Museum 2008), 51, also in exh cat  Khalili Collection,Sydney.

318 among Germanists: Goethe turned back from a momentous reunion with Marianne von Willemer, his beloved, when the axle of his carriage broke on the journey there, and taking it for an omen, never resumed the journey and never saw her again. See T. J. Reed, ‘Was hat Marianne wirklichgeschrieben?’ Skeptische Stimmen aus England’, in ‘Liber Amicorum:’ Katharina Mommsen zum 85. Geburtstag,’ eds. Andreas & Paul Remmel (Bonn: Bernstein Verlag 2010).
321 than a sorcerer’s: The philosopher Gottfried Herder, one of Goethe’s friends and inspirations, had warned that rational mockery of imagination’s energy, in the manner of the French debunkers (Voltaire), would only lead to an explosion, as in the Terror of the l790s. Around the same period, Herder borrowed a little-known term for a magician, or Wundermann: ‘shaman’, from the Tungus nomadic people on the Russian-Mongolian border. A German traveller-ethnographer, the Baron von Asch, had brought back from his expedition to the region a full costume of skins, complete with mask, of a Tungus shaman, and given it to themuseum in Gottingen, where it is likely that Goethe, who was friends with Herder and influenced by his thought, saw this impressive and indeed alarming mask and raiment. See Gloria Flaherty, Shamanism and the 18th Century (1992), 168–72.

321 ‘...European culture.’: Daniel Barenboim and Edward W. Said, Parallels and Paradoxes: Explorations in Music and Society (London:Bloomsbury, 2002), 7.

Chapter 16: Thought Experiments: Flight before Flight

330 modulates the tune: This is one of the stories which Pasolini and Dacia Maraini draw on in the film il Fiore delle mille e una notte (1972), to tremendous effect.

331 ‘the invisible worm’: William Blake, ‘The Sick Rose’, in Songs of Innocence and Experience, in The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman (New York: Anchor, 1988), 23.

O Rose thou art sick.
The invisible worm,
That flies in the night
In the howling storm
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy:
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy.

334 ‘...once a fairytale.’: Velimir Khlebnikov, ‘Iranskaya pesnya’ (1921), in Collected Works, trans. Paul Schmidt, Vol. III (Harvard UP, 1997), 84; this version quoted in Roman Jakobson, ‘On Russian Fairy Tales’, in Afanase’ev (1973), 631–651: 650. I could not have begun to quote Khlebnikov without the help of Robert Chandler, who kindly also offered me his version of the lines:

In the sky moves a plane (self-flier),
A dashing brother to the cloud.
Where is the self-laying (self-serving) tablecloth,
Wife to the self-flier?
Is the tablecloth accidentally late?
Has she (it) been put in prison.
I believe in fairy tales in advance:
What begin as tales end up as facts.

335 ‘heuristic...fiction’: Cette requalification de la catégorie du possible, engage également un changement de statut de la fiction. On passe de l’ancienne définition de la fiction comme mensonge à une conception plus nuancée dans laquelle la fiction dit quelque chose du monde. Ce que Godwin met en œuvré de façon ludique, c’est une nouvelle vertu heuristique de la fiction. On assiste alors dans nos deux textes à une réévaluation de la fiction, au point d’aboutir à un véritable renversement copernicien : les anciennes théories, jugées fallacieuses, sont congédiées comme fictions, au sens de “ fancy ”, alors que les anciennes fictions se révèlent être véridiques et vérifiées par la nouvelle philosophie.’ Aït-Touati (2005), 15–31: 25.
338 “serious fiction”: ‘Parce que la fiction fait référence à des observations reconnues et à des textes sérieux, elle n’est plus synonyme de mensonge ou de pure fantaisie. Le cadre ludique et narratif contient et intègre des éléments sérieux et discursifs, qui requalifient l’ensemble du texte en ce que j’ai appelé “ fiction sérieuse”. Aït-Touati (2005), 15–31: 18.

‘ philosophy’: La fiction fonctionne dès lors comme une expérience de pensée, et se substitue à l’impossible preuve expérimentale de la nouvelle théorie, Frédérique Aït-Touati, ‘La découverte d'un autre monde' Aït Touati, ibid., 26.

342 ‘...good of mankind’: Quoted O’Connor and Robertson, ‘John Wilkins’ (see note to p. 340 John Wilkins).

344 Peter Wilkins: [Paltock, Robert] The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins A Cornish Man (London: J. Robinson and R. Dodsley, 1751). The book was announced in the Gentleman’s Magazine, Nov. 1750; further editions followed in 1783 and 1784; it appeared in Weber’s Popular Romances,1812, and was illustrated by Robert Stothard in 1816. In France, the first translation of 1763 was also followed by later editions; it appeared in German in 1767. I have read in the British Library: [Robert Paltock],The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins (London, 1860). Other editions include idem,The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins (London, 1854);
and idem, intro. Edward Bawden (London: Dent, 1928); Les Hommes volans, ou les aventures de Peter Wilkins, traduites de l’anglais par Philipe Florent de Puisieux, 3 vols. (Paris, 1763); Idem, 2 vols. (Paris, 1788). The translator was P.F Puisieux, a diplomat who also translated Fielding and Smollett. He was the husband of the femme de lettres, Mme de Puisieux, Diderot’s lover, who laid the bet that Diderot would not be able to outdo Crébillon, who had written Le sopha, one of the earliest libertine oriental tales. In this way she inspired the writing of Les Bijoux indiscrets, a fine example of the genre.

Chapter 17: Why Aladdin?


...decried by the abolitionists: Debbie Lee, ‘‘Grave Dirt, Dried Toads, and the Blood of a Black Cat: How Aldridge Worked His Charms’. Forthcoming in Romantic Praxis, kindly lent by the author; Edward Long is the first user of the word ‘myal’, counter magic to obeah, in his History of Jamaica (1774), according to the OED. This concept has been revisioned and reclaimed in Erna Brodber’s highly original, compressed lyrical novel Myal (London, l988).

365 the slave trapped within: See Warner (2001), 141–150. I have written more about this in Fantastic Metamorphoses, so will not repeat the detailed material here. For example, the pantomime which was performed at Drury Lane in l826, during an intense phase of the abolition campaign, climaxes with a rousing – and abysmally written - chorus of praise from the three genies:
‘We are free!
Then one, named Astra sings,
Thy hand has rent the spell
That made us slaves
Roll away like waves
To the cave…’

The association – even the clumsy echo of ‘Rule Britannia!’ - must have been picked up by the audience at that time. Henry R. Bishop, Songs, Recollections, Duels, Choruses, in the Fairy Opera of Aladdin, (Theatre Royal Drury Lane, April 29 1826), 18.

Aladdin knows all about these captives’ husk-like condition and the play versions recognise this. In one play, when he loses the princess, he cries out, ’I do command thee, slave without a soul! – / Bring back my love, my life, my Nourmahal!’ (emphasis added) See, George Sloan, Aladdin: A Fairy Opera in Three Acts (London, 1826), 65.

Chapter 18: Machine Dreams

372 ‘...surfaces in motion.’: ‘Il peut aussi être envisagé, à rebours du credo moderniste, comme un dispositif de mise en mouvement des surfaces ..’ Philippe-Alain Michaud, notes towards an exhibition of oriental carpets, kindly lent by the author.

373 ‘...disequilibrium: ‘les propriétés de l’expansion, de la rotation et du défilement produisent des effets de flottement, de désorientation ou de déséquilibre...’ ibid.

374 ‘...Ghost Dance.’: The films are preserved in Library of Congress and can be viewed online.

HYPERLINK ""Buffalo dance: HYPERLINK "" With sound track: HYPERLINK ""
Ghost Dance: HYPERLINK ""
(Accessed March 18 2011.)

380 ‘Thousand and Second Night’ party: See Peter Wollen on Poiret’s fancy dress ball, in Raiding the Ice-Box (London: John Wiley, 1993).

383 purpling the Orient: ‘in the Orient’s motley, twisted annals the tale of Ahmed el- Bagdadi – “the Thief of Bagdad”’…’s search for happiness… is mentioned with pride by his own tribe, the Benni Hussaynieh, a raucous-tongued, hard-riding breed of Bedawins, brittle of honour and greedy of gain… It is wide-blown through the flaps of the nomads’ black felt tents from Mecca to Jeddah and beyond: berry-brown, wizen old women cackle its gliding gossip as they bray the coffee for the morning meal or rock the blown-up milk skins upon their knees till the butter rolls yellow and frothing; and, on the sun-cracked lips of the cameleers, on the honeyed, lying lips of overland traders and merchants, the tale has drifted as far as the Sahara, North to the walls of grey, stony Bohkara, South- east and North-east to Pekin’s carved dragon gates and the orchid plains and ochre mountains of Hindustan, and West to the pleasant, odorous gardens of Morocco where garrulous white-beards comment upon it as they digest the brave deeds of the past in the curling, blue smoke of their water-pipes.
‘”Wah hyat Ullah – as God liveth!”their telling begins. “This Ahmed el- Bagdadi – what a keen lad he was! A deer in running! A cat in climbing! A snake in twisting! A hawk in pouncing! A dog in scenting! Fleet as a hare! Stealthy as a fox! Tenacious as a wolf! Brave as a lion! Strong as an elephant in mating-time!’ Achmed Abdullah, The Thief of Bagdad 7-8. See also, The Swinging Caravan (1911), The Red Stain (1915), The Blue-Eyed Manchu (1916), Bucking the Tiger (1917), The Trail of the Beast (1915), The Man on Horseback (1919), The Mating of the Blades (1920). He also wrote Dreamers of Empire (London: Harrap,1930), which explores the lives of romantic explorers and soldiers of fortune who made their lives in the Middle East, inc. Burton; also A Buccaneer in Spats (1924).

Chapter 19: The Shadows of Lotte Reiniger

395 ‘...‘Second Dervish.’: ANE, 94–105. This story, sometimes called ‘The Story of the Envious Man and Him that he Envied’, is interpolated in 'The Second Calender’s Tale' (he is one of three one-eyed dervishes who all tell the sad tale of how they came about the loss of their eye to the Three Ladies of Baghdad).
The Sword in the Stone: This point was made by one of the students at Bertinoro after my talk.
Cinderella/Freud: The series of jagged sphincter-framed episodes unconsciously resemble the flying amulets of female genitalia that were potent charms in the ancient world. See Malcolm Jones, The Secret Middle Ages (Sutton: Stroud, Glos., 2002), 254-257.

402 circumscribed her range: She made other changes for the family audience: the bird princess and her nymphs, when they come to bathe in the pool and shed their feather cloaks, are no longer revealed in all their silhouetted graceful nakedness, but have now acquired an elaborate tracery of swimming costumes underneath (burqinas avant la lettre). The voice over story teller firmly declares that the Prince asked the princess to marry him; he goes on bended knee, and no abduction is shown. With regard to Orientalism, two main things can be seen to be happening here in response to the needs of family entertainment: first, the heroes and the heroines in her post-war fairytale films are made to invite identification by the target spectators – boys and girls. Secondly, these are envisaged as western boys and girls, and needing their own image – and their own desired manners and morals - projected on the screen.

Chapter 20: The Couch: A Case History

415 Experts have since identified: Freud referred to his cousin’s gift as 'the Smyrna rug' so Moritz may have said that was where he acquired it:
Die Ottomane steht mit dem Smyrnateppich von Moritz bedeckt. Eine große Untersuchungslampe auf dem Kasten, eine Schreibtischeinrichtung aus schwarzem Holz (2 Papeterien, 1 Staffelei für Charcot, 1 Kalender mit Markenkästchen), die ausgezeichnet zu Deinem Block paßt, beide Bücherkästen mit eingestellten Büchern, und jetzt also die Tafeln...' SF to Bernays, Martha [Wien 1886 Apr. 21] SFC.

...of Iran and Turkey: Sent by Michael Molnar August 13 2009 ;[Erica Davies: inventory of Freud’s rugs, ms. Freud Archive, Freud Museum.
p 416 The outcome of the lovers' story may not be tragic after all, as the old couple may be recounting their own story. Throwing a possible light on their survival, Peter Dronke tells me that a friend of his was the son of an Egyptian father and a Greek mother. As this marriage was frowned on by her community, they arranged to elope, and her father agreed and shot into the air as they left so that honour was preserved. Private communication, November 9 2011.

417 ‘...with our own youth.’: Sigmund Freud, Letter to his fiancée,14Aug. 1882; John Forrester found this for me. Michael Molnar pointed out the change of image that took place in the passage from German to English.
“Du jetzt machst? Stehst im Garten und sinnst hinaus in die einsame Straße? Ach, ich komm nicht mehr vorbei, Dir die Hand zu drücken, der Zaubermantel, der mich zu Dir getragen, ist zerrissen, die Flügelpferde, welche holde Feen zu senden pflegten, die Feen selber kommen nicht mehr, Tarnkappen sind auch nicht zu haben, die liebe Welt ist so nüchtern, sie fragt: was willst du, liebes Kind? Du sollst es haben mit der Zeit. Geduld ist ihr einziges Zauberwort. Und vergißt dabei, wieviel verlorengeht, wenn wir's nicht gleich haben können, wenn wir's mit der eigenen Jugend erkaufen müssen. "

‘...precious it would be!’: Three years later, Freud again writes how he wants to fl y to Martha: "Zu Ostern schreibe ich mein Gesuch ums Reisestipendium, »und wäre nur ein Zaubermantel mein und trüg er mich in ferne Länder, zu meinem Marthchen, Deinen Sigmund." (Freud to Martha Bernays 3.4.1885) From Michael Molnar.

Goethe, ‘Outside the City Gate’ in Faust: Part One, (1994) lines 1110–25:

Zwei Seelen wohnen, ach! in meiner Brust,
Die eine will sich von der andern trennen;
Die eine hält, in derber Liebeslust,
Sich an die Welt, mit klammernden Organen;
Die andre hebt gewaltsam sich vom Dust,
Zu den Gefilden hoher Ahnen.
O giebt es Geister in der Luft,
Die zwischen Erd' und Himmel herrschend weben,
So steiget nieder aus dem goldnen Duft
Und führt mich weg, zu neuem buntem Leben!
Ja, wäre nur ein Zaubermantel mein!
Und trüg' er mich in fremde Länder,
Mir sollt' er, um die köstlichsten Gewänder,
Nicht feil um einen Königsmantel sein.

418 ‘...infinite combination grows.’: Goethe, Faust’s Study (iii) in Faust Part One, trans. Bayard Taylor, quoted in Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, trans. James Strachey [1953] (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980) [S.E. IV. 388–389]; Goethe, Faust: Part One (1984), 94–5:

Ein Tritt tausend Fäden regt,
Die Schifflein herüber hinüber schiessen,
Die Fäden ungesehen fliessen,
Ein Schlag tausend Verbindungen schlägt.

‘nodal points.’: The full quotation from Freud’s letter continues: “So, too, ‘monograph’ in the dream touches upon two subjects; the one-sidedness of my studies and the costliness of my favourite hobbies. 'This first investigation leads us to conclude that the elements ‘botanical’ and ‘monograph’ found their way into the content of the dream because they possessed copious contacts with the majority of the dream-thoughts, because, that is to say, they constituted ‘nodal points’ upon which a great number of the dream-thoughts converged, and because they had several meanings in connection with the interpretation of the dream. The explanation of this fundamental fact can also be put in another way: each of the elements of the dream’s content turns out to have been ‘overdetermined’—to have been represented in the dream-thoughts many times over.” 1899; from ‘The Dream Work’, in Freud, Interpretation of Dreams, S.E. IV: 388–389.

422 ‘ manner.’: Sigmund Freud to Martha Bernays, 30 Nov.1883. “Heute war Moritz bei mir, der immer etwas leichteres Blut in unsere pessimistische, selbstquälerische Familienart bringt.” For a nuanced account of relations between Sigmund and both Moritz and Mitzi Freud, see the letter of Lilly Freud-Marlé to Ernst Freud, 4 Dec. 1958 in Lilly Freud-Marlé and C. Tögel, eds., Mein Onkel Sigmund Freud, (2006), 45–8.

423 taking her on his travels: Er [Moritz Freud] pflegte auf seine Reisen häufig eine seiner Töchter mitzunehmen, um das lebendige Buch des Lebens mit seinen vielfarbigen Illustrationen, seinen grossen und kleinen Lettern zu lesen und zu begreifen. war Vaters Erziehung für seine Kinder.” in ibid., 362-3

Double Horror: On the ninth page we find a large grid with each of its squares containing a picture - a variety of animals and objects, birds, fishes, houses, cars etc. Between the pages there is a loose template, a square card perforated with an unsymmetrical pattern of square holes. When this template is placed over the grid one way it reveals only pictures of birds; turned 90 degrees only animals appear in the slots. Another turn reveals only fishes: a final twist only children. Flipped over, the card offers four further categories of image:‘ Nichts als Häuser, Nichts als Blumen, Nichts als Früchte, Nichts als Fahrzeuge‘. [Nothing but houses, nothing but flowers, nothing but fruits, nothing but vehicles] Molnar, “…the child should know…” English version kindly lent to MW by the author. Molnar, M. (2005) Molnar, "...das Kind soll wissen..." 134-148


Conclusion: ‘All the story of the night told over . . .’

429 Epigraph i: Translation adapted from Marcel Proust, Time Regained, in In Search of Lost Time, trans. Moncrieff/Kilmartin, 6 vols. (London: Chatto, 1992), VI: 446–447. The quote continues: ‘true, when you are in love with some particular book, you would like yourself to write something that closely resembles it, but this love of the moment must be sacrificed, you must think not of your own taste but of a truth which far from asking you what your preferences are forbids you to [think of them] pay attention to them.

Il me faudrait beaucoup de nuits, peut-être cent, peut-être mille. Et je vivrais dans l’anxiété de ne pas savoir si le Maître de ma destinée, moins indulgent que le sultan Sheriar, le matin quand j’interromprais mon récit, voudrait bien surseoir a mon arrêt de mort […] Non pas que je prétendisse refaire, en quoi que ce fût, Les Mille et une Nuits […] pas plus qu’aucun des lires que j’avais aimés, dans ma naïveté d’enfant, superstitieusement attaché à eux comme a mes amours […] Sans doute, quand on est amoureux d’une œuvre, on voudrait faire quelque chose de toit pareil, mais il faut sacrifier son amour du moment, ne pas penser à son gout, mais à une vérité que ne vous demande pas vos préférences et vous défend d’y songer.’

Marcel Proust, Le Temps retrouvé, in À la Recherche du temps perdu (Paris: Gallimard, 1963) III : 1043.



Stranger Magic
November 24 2011

(Many caused by my handwritten corrections mis-read!)

Captions to colour plates
Plate 6 line 1 jinniya (not jinni)
Plate 12 line 4 Errol (not Erroll)

p xii line 3 Errol (not Erroll)

p 2 line 4 Dunyazad (not Dinarzade), line 6 Dunyazad (not Dinarzade)
p 2 par 5 line 2 : 'the Sultan of Great Tartary (in other versions of Samarkand)
p 4 line 4: a huge jinni
p 9 line 4: Ghitani
p 10 par 3 3 lines from end: of many early tales too
P 11 par 3: red-letter headings. The boards have been tattered and torn
p 12 par 2 line 4: [sic] in Romanp 24 par 3, 3 lines up: Reading along two opposed paths

p 69 last but one line of translation of quotation from Dante, revise to read:
'...embroidery, nor were such webs laid …

p 107 caption :
line 1 Hermes Aegyptius (not Aegyptus)line 2 Avicenna Arabs (not Arabus)

p 164 par 5 line 8 change 'her husband brought back some manuscripts' to 'her son bought - in Egypt - the manuscripts...'

176 par 2 line 3 Etat, not L'Etat, and circumflex on a in Etat

p 177 caption: Cecile has an e acute on first e.
Etat, not L'Etat, and Etat has a circumflex accent on a

p 188 caption - her jinni abductor

p 212 2 lines up ' jinni' (not jinn)

Chapter 16
p 335 5 lines from bottom: made by a priest, Pantaleone, in 1163-5; and there is

p 391 delete 2 x WAND in figure of trick table ?

p 409 par 3 line 1
change post-Miltonic... to 'post-Virgilian'

p 411 line 2
change Die to The

p 411 par 2 line 3
take out colon after 'hermeneutics'

p 411 par 2 line 8 ADD 'by a cousin, Moritz,' after ' been given'

p 433 line 5
close gap after 'Calvino' before ,

p 435 par 4 line 2-3
ADD 'reveal' after 'glimpse' to read: ' allow us to glimpse reveal a way of ethics:'

p 440
lighten bird-fairy image

p 442
9. Ma'ruf the Cobbler
ADD Vol 3, 690-731.

p 445 note to p vii : Writings NOT Witings
add after Schulkind and before 78–160: 85. : (London: Pimlico, 2002)

p 451
MOVE '50' up next to '...took good care':

p 462 line 5, note to p 172: The name of the author of the article has been omitted: many apologies to Hanne Kolind Poulsen.

P 463 note to p. 178, full details of Description de l'Egypte are not included in the Abbreviations. They are:
Description de l'Egypte : ou Recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant l'expedition de l'armee francaise, publie par les ordres de Sa Majeste l'empereur Napoleon le Grand Paris: Imprimerie imperiale, 1809-1828), ed. E. F. Jomard, with preface by M Fourier. 20 vols.

p 464 note to p. 187 semi-colon after '164' and then replace 'portfolio (l897) with :
Letchford, Albert, A Series of Seventy Original Illustrations to Captain Sir Richard F Burton's Arabian Nights (Privately printed, l897), The Arcadian Library, London.

p 465 note to p 202 'Witchiness'

p 507
entry for 'Ghazoul', after 'Cairo Press' and before closing bracket ADD: ,1996

p 522 col 1
Bidet, Le in italics

p 524 col 2
Der mude Tod : this entry should really be under M on p 534 col 1 between 'Mubariz' and 'Mughals'

p 525 Add entry:
Dinarzade , see Dunyazad between 'Diehl... ' and 'Disney...'

In entry on Dunyazad, cut The
p 525 col 1
d'O, marquise 12 this entry should be under O on p 534 col 1 before Obama
Dunyazad … Change The Arabian Nights to 'the Arabian Nights'

p 525 col 2
L'Enfant et les sortileges... this entry needs to be aligned to the left as a separate entry, and needs a grave accent on the first e in sortileges...

p 526 col 1
Finesses de Morgiane, Les should be in italics.
(The Stratagems of Morgiana) (NOT Strategems)

fliegende Koffer, Der (Needs a comma after Koffer)

p 526 col 2
Freud, Moritz ADD 411, (Before 414-5)

p 531 col 1
Le Mercure galant ( cap M on mercure)

p 531 col 2
entry on 'Le Taureau blanc' … should be moved to p 539 col 1 between Tatler and Tennyson (but this might be TOO difficult)

p 531 col 2

Les Hommes volans... see should be in Roman not italics and this

p 533 col 2
Mille et une nuit, Les …. ADD cap L on les

p 534 Musee de familles.. ie s on famille

p 536 col 2
Saphir merveilleux Delete de before Genlis

p 538 col 1
Sopha … on Crebillon acute accent on e


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